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Human research (for persons, working for master's or doctor's degree)
Human experimentation includes medical and psychological experiments over living individuals, which have long and cruel history. Today, the major preconditions for such studies are the voluntariness of participation and the fact or prior animal work in this field. Human research in fact allows testing essential medications, health care technologies or psychological theories and is therefore a vital instrument of scientific progress, even though performed in excessively inhumane manner in the past epochs.
Major thesis statements:
1) Human experimentation is often associated with both physical and psychological suffering, even though preventative measures are taken.
2) Human research might have long lasting effects, such as personality and health problems.
3) The principle of informed consent, although introduced, is not actually dominant and universal, especially in the area of psychological study, since the initiators are not always aware of all risks and hazards.
Primary issues to discuss:
1) Compare the following medical investigations: the Tuskegee syphilis experiment, Willowbrook State School hepatitis study and Jewish Chronic Disease Study and examine the social and legal changes, incited by the research.
2) It is known that in certain countries human experiments over prisoners with considerable sentences (life imprisonment and so forth) do not include informed consent. Can such policy be justified by the fact that such individuals have committed cruel crimes and their life is therefore 'weighs' less?
3) Compare the Milgram experiment and the Stanford prison experiment (psychological research with questionable ethics) and determine whether they are really abusing. If possible, find some facts about the further lives of ex-participants (subjects).
4) Your experience in human research.
5) Should human research be replaced completely by animal experiments?
1) Beecher, H. Ethics and Clinical research. The New England Journal of Medicine.Vol.274, No.24, June 16, 1966: pp.1354-1360.
2) Brady, J. and Jonsen, A. The Evolution of Regulatory Influences on research with Human Subjects. Human Subjects Research - A Handbook for Institutional Review Boards. Ed. Greenwald, R. New York: Plenum Press, 1982, pp.3-18
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