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3.1. Formatting a Dissertation
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3.1. Formatting a Dissertation
Formatting a dissertation is quite a diligent work, because all
demands as for its form should be carefully fulfilled.
It is useful for a writer to look through the recent
dissertations formatted according to the same standard that his
or her academic institutions requires so that to find out what
are the basic guidelines for formatting and layout of the
scientific papers. Attention should be paid to everything: the
size of page margins; the size and font of the text of the
paper; line-to-line spacing; formats of the title page, the
contents list, appendices; the works cited section;
illustrations, tables, diagrams and figures; as well as
numbering systems for chapters, paragraphs, pages, tables, etc.
Also, the reference style should be taken into consideration.
(Tham 2001, np)
All these requirements can be found in corresponding manuals
issued by the university or college a researcher belongs to; or
if the university follows one of generally accepted standards
(MLA, APA, Harvard, Chicago etc.), in the manuals describing how
to format all details of a paper (from title page to reference
list) according to this standard.
The formatting of citations has its own rules. If a researcher
uses the entire sentence from the cited source, the citation
begins from the capital letter. Similarly, if a citation in the
initial source begins from a small letter and in included by the
author of a dissertation into his or her sentence, then the
small letter is preserved (in this case it is usually prescribed
to put three dots after the quotation marks, but it may be not
necessary). But in case in the initial source the cited abstract
begins from the capital letter, and the researcher makes it part
of his or her own sentence, changing the letter to a small one
(or vice versa), s/he should enclose it in square brackets, for
As a consequence of implementations of this Law, the number
of incarcerated people tripled between 1980 and 1992, and
financially, it had cost the state quite a significant sums of
money: "[s]ince the 1982 - 1983 State fiscal year, the share of
State General Fund spending going towards the funding of the NYS
prison system more than doubled, from approximately 10% to fully
25% of the state's General Fund State Operations Budget".
Correct usage of titles and numbering is also very important for
a dissertation. Each chapter, paragraph or subparagraph should
be given a number and a title. Paragraphs and subparagraphs are
also given a numerical index (for example 1.1., 2.5., 4.3.1.,
etc.) (Tham 2001, np)
Figures, tables and diagrams are normally given a numerical
index too, and most often they also have a title. It enables a
researcher to refer to them in the body of the dissertation
(e.g. "As it is shown on Fig. 2.5., ...", "For the results of the
poll look at the table 1.2..." etc.) (Tham 2001, np)
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